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Key Components of Web2.0

August 12, 2009

3) REST(Representation State Transfer):

The term REST coined by Dr.Roy T.Fielding in his Ph.D. dissertation is defined as a software architecture intended to evoke an image of how a well designed web application behaves; A web application is a network of web pages through which the user progresses by traversing the hyperlinks changing the application client state from one to another. It can be explained s follows:
1)A client accesses any web resource by an URL.
2) The server responds by sending an HTML document which is the representation of the resource requested by the client.This represents one state of the client application.
3) When the client selects any link, it means the client is accessing another web resource.
This web resource again represents another state of the client application.
4) Thus the state of the client application goes on changing with the representation of each resource.
5) In order to implement web services in REST, first a resource should be created for that web service. That resource is accessed by an URL.
6) The web services should be designed in an interconnected manner.
Suppose for ex. want to get details of products from products-depot incorporate.

First in order to obtain Products List, the client accesses the URL,
Next client selects Products
In order to obtain information about any one product, the client selects that product and navigates to another web resource,…which is represented by URL 2 in the above diagram.The number mentioned is something like the id of the product.
7) From the preceding example, we find that REST is stateless as all information needs to be provided every time a web resource is accessed.
4) SOAP:
SOAP is a light weight protocol used for the exchange of XML-messages in a decentralized, distributed environment.

Web3.0-Semantic web

August 12, 2009
Web3.0=Web2.0+Semantic web
Web3.0 is based on the concept of Semantic mark up. Semantic mark up is nothing but the communication gap that exists between the human users and software applications. It is actually based on artificial intelligence which is the process of making computers behave as human beings.
In web3.0, the web content is represented in natural language that can be understood not only by humans but by machines as well. It is really a hard concept for developers to understand. The syntax rules that need to be framed for building the natural language is something very challenging in a semantic web or commonly called Web3.0-the READ-WRITE-EXECUTE web.

Attempts are being made to access databases as webpages in Web3.0. Still it may take a long way to go for web3.0 to become fully developed.

Note to developers,advantages and disadvantages of web2.0 and caution

August 12, 2009
There are certain factors that developers need to consider while designing Web2.0 applications. Some of them are:
1) The developer must be well aware of the application interface because of asynchronous communication between the client and server in Web2.0 applications as opposed to page-refresh in Web1.0 applications. So they should consider new ways to notify the users about the ongoing internal processing at the server side for which page-refresh was meant in the case of Web1.0 applications. This can be done by displaying a simple message in a <div> element rather than using alert boxes. By doing so, the user need not stop processing in order to respond.
2) After data is provided to the interface, users should be able to identify what is new. For this purpose some distinct color can be used to highlight the data.
3) Developers must take care that the form is not submitted to the server even if the user clicks the button inadvertently before entering valid data. For this purpose, the button should be enabled only after valid data entry. Hence interface elements should be enabled and disabled appropriately by the developer.
Advantages of Web2.0 architecture:
1) Asynchronous communication: Each time an event is triggered, the user does not have to wait for a response from the server.
2) There has been an increase in the number of tools used for creating Web2.0 applications.
3) A rich online user-experience is afforded by techniques like AJAX.
Disadvantages of Web2.0 architecture:
A higher degree of programming skill is required on the part of developers.
For ex. AJAX approach may place the onus of writing javascripts that cope with the vagaries of the modern browsers.
Caution in using Web2.0:
The upcoming of Web2.0 technology does not mean traditional or Web1.0 applications have become obsolete. It is also not necessary that web applications henceforth be developed only by using the features of the new technology. For instance, shopping cart applications which are usually employed by online e-commerce businesses may be developed using Web1.0 approach as they provide just the catalogue of products to the buyer and do not need to promote any interactivity.
With the emergence of new tools for developing Web2.0 applications, developers should not rework all the interface elements with the aim of providing a rich user interface because users may find it hard to work with applications composed of unfamiliar widgets. Hence it is better to retain the traditional interface elements with which they are familiar.

Key components of Web2.0-RSS and AJAX

August 12, 2009
1)Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary(RSS):
RSS is a key concept in Web2.0.It can be well explained with the help of an example.
Take for instance I want to write an article titled Web2.0.After searching extensively in different websites for information about Web2.0,I found that there were some 5 websites which were able to provide me details on various topics relating to Web2.0.I just wanted to keep myself updated on some topics like Network Effect ,Web as platform,Blogs,Technology stack of Web2.0 and Application architecture of Web2.0 in order to produce the article.But the information being scattered in different websites ,it was very difficult for me to check manually for any updated content under all these headings by visiting all the five websites and navigating to that particular content page.It was really time consuming and difficult too.
But when I discovered RSS on the content pages of the 5 different websites,the task was made easy because by subscribing to it, I was able to bring the contents from all the five different sites to one common location.The contents are called RSS feeds.
Most probably everybody would have noted images like this on different websites. By clicking on it,we can subscribe to one of the Web-based RSS Feed Readers like igoogle,Netvibes,MyYahoo,etc.Suppose if i choose netvibes on all 5 sites and add the rss feeds,ie,the contents from the 5 different websites to it ,i can see a portion of the content under all the above headings from the 5 different websites appearing on the Netvibes start page.We can add as many rss feeds as we want to one RSS Feed Reader.Thus the cumbersum task of manually navigating to the content pages on different websites will be eliminated and easily we can get any updated information on all topics in one page like the Netvibes start page in the preceding example. This is an overview of RSS.A more clear understanding of subscription can be evolved by practically using this feature which saves lot of time and energy.
While web-based RSS feed readers are available,there is a downloadable software called aggregator that can also check for frequent updates in all the RSS feeds,collect them and put them in the common location we choose which may be google homepage,Netvibes or Googlereader..

2)AJAX: 1) AJAX stands for Asynchronous Javascript And XML.

2) It is a collection of several web-development techniques like DHTM, Javascript, XML, etc
3) AJAX is an approach for building interactive websites as it renders asynchronous
communication   possible.
4) AJAX is a bridge between desktop applications and web applications.
5) It removes the Request/Response model.
6) It updates only a portion of the interface.
7) It is an open standard.
8) The XMLHttpRequest object is used to make scripts request for information from the server.
9) Suppose if I select a country in Country listbox, then my application should populate the states of that country in the states listbox.In this situation we can use  “AJAX” to send the request to the back end to get the States list. As we send request to back end and do not wait for response from the server, it is called Asynchronous call using JavaScript. The JavaScript event in the above example is onChange event of the country listbox.The request is sent to backend using XMLHTTPRequest object. The response is obtained as an XML.By using DOM, the XML is parsed and the data is populated.


August 12, 2009

Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company.Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s.

The decision to outsource is often made in the interest of lowering firm costs, redirecting or conserving energy directed at the competencies of a particular business, or to make more efficient use of labor, capital, technology and resources.
Outsourcing involves the transfer of the management and day-to-day execution of an entire business function to an external service provider. The client organization and the supplier enter into a contractual agreement that defines the transferred services. Under the agreement the supplier acquires the means of production in the form of a transfer of people, assets and other resources from the client. The client agrees to procure the services from the supplier for the term of the contract. Business segments typically outsourced include information technology, human resources, facilities and real estate management, and accounting. Many companies also outsource customer support and call center functions like telemarketing, customer services, market research, manufacturing and engineering.
Outsourcing and offshoring are used interchangeably in public discourse despite important technical differences. Outsourcing involves contracting with a supplier, which may or may not involve some degree of offshoring. Offshoring is the transfer of an organizational function to another country, regardless of whether the work is outsourced or stays within the same corporation. With increasing globalization of outsourcing companies, the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring will become less clear over time. This is evident in the increasing presence of Indian outsourcing companies in the US and UK. The globalization of outsourcing operating models has resulted in new terms such as nearshoring and rightshoring that reflect the changing mix of locations. This is seen in the opening of offices and operations centers by Indian companies in the U.S. and UK.
Process of outsourcing:
Deciding to outsource
Supplier proposals
Supplier competition
Contract finalization
Ongoing service delivery
Termination or renewal
Reasons for outsourcing:
Cost savings
Cost restructuring
Improve quality
Operational expertise
Staffing issues
Capacity management
Catalyst for change
Reduce time to market
Risk management
Time Zone
Customer Pressure
Criticisms of outsourcing:
Public opinion
Against shareholder views
Failure to realize business value
Language skills
Social Responsibility
Quality of Service
Staff Turnover
Company knowledge
Qualifications of outsourcers:
The outsourcer may replace staff with less qualified people or with people with different non-equivalent qualifications.
In the engineering discipline there has been a debate about the number of engineers being produced by the major economies of the United States, India and China. The argument centers on the definition of an engineering graduate and also disputed numbers. The closest comparable numbers of annual gradates of four-year degrees are United States (137,437) India (112,000) and China (351,537).
Before outsourcing an organization is responsible for the actions of all their staff and liable for their actions. When these same people are transferred to an outsourcer they may not change desk but their legal status has changed. They no-longer are directly employed or responsible to the organization. This causes legal, security and compliance issues that need to be addressed through the contract between the client and the suppliers. This is one of the most complex areas of outsourcing and requires a specialist third party adviser.
Fraud is a specific security issue that is criminal activity whether it is by employees or the supplier staff. It can be argued that fraud is more likely when outsourcers are involved. In April 2005, a high-profile case involving the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when call center workers, acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank

Top 30 Countries for Offshore IT Services

August 12, 2009
Offshore IT services spending will grow 40 percent in the United States and 60 percent in Europe in 2008, according to research analyst firm Gartner. Where should those outsourcing dollars go?
Gartner used ten criteria (language, government support, labor pool, infrastructure, educational system, cost, political and economic environment, cultural compatibility, global and legal maturity, and data and intellectual property security and privacy) to compile a list of the top 30 global destinations for IT services by region:
Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico and Uruguay
Australia, China, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Vietnam
Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA)
The Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Northern Ireland, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey and Ukraine
Destinations in the Americas are most attractive to buyers in the United States. Canada led in seven of Gartner ten list categories (faring worst in the region for cost of labor). Latin American countries are increasingly valued for their Spanish speaking employees, but IP and security concerns are more prevalent.
In the Asia/Pacific region, China, India and Singapore all demonstrated strong government support of IT services, but China scored poorly on language skills, according to Gartner. Political and economic risk are an issue with Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, says Gartner, while higher-cost locations like Australia, New Zealand and Singapore led for cultural compatibility, global and legal maturity, and data and intellectual property security and privacy.
Government support was generally low in the EMEA region, according to Gartner. Ireland, Israel, Northern Ireland and South Africa garnered good scores for English language. But the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania got extra credit for alternative language capabilities attractive for an increasing number of continental European buyers.

OutSourcing In India

August 12, 2009

The world is discovering the fact that India is a super power when it comes to developing IT solutions. Swept by the current of the latest trend “IT outsourcing to India”, we find many fortune 500 companies like Microsoft, Oracle, Citibank, Morgan Stanley, Wal-Mart, AT&T, General Electric, Reebok, General Motors, Sony, Boeing, Coca-cola, Pepsi, Swissair, United Airlines, Philips, IBM, Lucas and British Aerospace beneficiaries. Why India mainly targeted? 1. India’s human resources Being the world’s second highly populated country, human resources are a boon by itself. India is proud of the abundance and easy availability of its highly qualified and technically skilled English speaking computer professionals; who are key to success in the field of IT outsourcing to India. 2. Cost efficiency of IT outsourcing in India Significant cost saving can be achieved by IT outsourcing to India, owing to the wide gap between the personal costs in India and that of the developed countries. Offshore outsourcing to India offers considerable economical benefits. 3. Standard quality that firms doing IT outsourcing in India guarantee The Indian companies involved in IT outsourcing in India provide high quality work, meeting international standards and complying with the ISO & SEI-CMM standards. Three out of every four SEI-CMM 5 companies worldwide is located in India. 4. The reliable communication facilities Excellent telecom, ISP, and cellular networks are available in all cities & towns in the country. India prides in the reliable satellite and submarine communication links that facilitate good band connectivity with the rest of the world. Thus companies engaged in IT outsourcing to India, can be in touch with the vendors without any connection hurdles. 5. Technologically advanced outsourcing firms in India India’s technologies offer excellent software solutions. The applications include E-commerce, Business Process re-engineering, System Migration, Maintaining Legacy system, System integration etc. India prides in outsourcing facilities that are required to compete with others; which is yet another reason as to why the world prefers It outsourcing to India. 6. Galloping growth in Indian economy The service sector in India contributes 51% of the GDP. Computer software export was prominent with a growth rate of 40%-50% per year during the 90s. India being the second largest software exporter in the world its large business houses and public sector units are growing steadfastly towards raising economic growth. 7. Stable government facilitating IT growth India has a stable pro – IT government whose policies, economy, GDP growth, taxation, power, telecom, industrial parks & special zones have been helpful in improving the infrastructure as well as communication. The government proves to be a great support for software firms by further providing all the basic facilities required for an outsourcing company to flourish thus playing a major role in contributing to the success and well-being of IT outsourcing to India. 8. Indian government policies ᅡᄋ IT is regarded as one of the top 5 priority industries in India. IT is a part of the national agenda, and policies are framed so as to obtain maximum benefit out of IT outsourcing to India. ᅡᄋ The new National Telecom Policy has invited private participants to the Indian telecom sector. ᅡᄋ The IT bill passed in 2000, gives a legal framework for the recognition of electronic contracts, prevention of computer crime and electronic filing of documents. NASSCOM along with the government is playing a notable role in protecting the interests of the IT sector. Thus with all these help, IT outsourcing to India has reached a point of no turning back.