Web Standard is a set of standardized best practices for building web sites, philosophy of web design and development. Set of rules followed by web standard should be
1. Accessibility to users.
2. Ease of maintenance
3. Flexible structure which to accommodate design adjustments
Why web Standards?
When the standards are not followed, we can’t use standardized tools, we can’t use standardized browsers, and we lose all the benefits of standards.
Need of web standards:
1. Allow us to write web pages that display on most browsers
2. Allow us to write XML applications that will work in other locations than where we wrote them
3. Allow us to switch between computers and software without difficulty.
Widely followed web standards:
HTML- Hyper text Markup Language
XML – Extensible Markup Language
XHTML – Reformulation of HTML as an XML application
CSS – Cascading Style Sheets
DOM – Document Object Model level.
Hypertext Markup Language is widely used on the Web for adding structure to text documents. Browsers interpret these documents, representing the structure in media-specific ways to the user.
Extensible Markup Language is also a markup language like HTML, but instead of having a single, fixed set of elements, it allows defining our own – or using a set made by someone else. It even allows using multiple sets within a single document – by using XML naming space.
XHTML is Reformulation of HTML as an XML application. XHTML will display in browser identically to the equivalent HTML. If we want to use XHTML if there is any chance we need to reprocess our content, for example to send it to a PDA; XMLs stricter syntax rules make automatic processing of XHTML much easier and cheaper than ordinary HTML.
Ideologically, XHTML 1.0 inherits the following general concepts from HTML 4.01:
That presentation and document formatting should be separated via style sheets
That document should be made accessible
That document should be internationalized
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a mechanism for changing the appearance of HTML or XML elements, by assigning styles to element types, self-defined classes of elements or individual instances. W3C recommended that layout-specific features in HTML be phased out and replaced by style sheets, creating a simpler and more structural World Wide Web.
Document Object Model Level is an Application Programming Interface (API) for interacting with web pages. DOM allows the full power and interactivity of a scripting language for a web page. It gives the scripting language easy access to the structure, content, and presentation of a document which is written in such languages as HTML and CSS.
The DOM is compatible. It will allow any scripting language to interact with whatever languages are being used in the document. This standard will not only make it easier to program dynamic HTML, but will also make adapting to future Internet technology much less painful.
Let, have a closer look at the three major components,
Content is the message that you are trying to get across. If your application were a movie, the content would be the typed script. For a website, this would include the copy, form fields, and data for each page.
Styling is the fonts, colors, and general look-and-feel on a page. And also the pages layout is an element of style.
Behavior refers to how the page interacts with the user. For example, a page may include real-time form validation and real time calculations.
Web standards consist of the following,
Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C.
Style sheets, especially CSS Recommended by W3C.
Document Object Model Recommended by W3C.