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Standard setting organizations

August 10, 2009
tags:
Computer standards are set by any one of the following organizations
Standard Organizations
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • ANSI (American National Standard Institute)
  • ISO (International Standard Organization)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
  • OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)
  • FSG (Free Standard Group)
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium):
1.                  World Wide Web Consortium was created in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, Working at CERN at Geneva Switzerland. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web standards. W3C develops specifications, guidelines, software, and tools for the Technologies to lead the Web to its full potential.
2. W3C is an international consortium that specializes in the development of protocols and guidelines for use on the World Wide Web. W3C is not any specific standard it¬タルs a Recommendation, which is considered as Web Standards.
3.                   W3C makes web technologies compatible with one another and allows any hardware and software to access with web to work together.
4.                   Membership of W3C is open to any organization. There are several categories of membership depends upon the organizations
W3C counts the following categories according to the organization as
  • Technology and Services
  • Content Providers
  • Corporate users
  • Research bodies and Governments among its members
5. Individuals are not employees of W3C, but he can also be involved by participating in the technical discussions in its many public mailing lists.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers):
1.                    IEEE is a non-profit technical and Professional association. It sets standard for most Electrical Interface.
2. IEEE has more than 360,000 individual members over 175 countries.
3.                   The IEEE Standards Association is in the development of technical standards in the following fields of,
ᅡᄋ Information technology
ᅡᄋ Telecommunications
ᅡᄋ Energy and power
4.        IEEE standards development is guided     the five basic principles of,
ᅡᄋ Due process
ᅡᄋ Openness
ᅡᄋ Consensus
ᅡᄋ Balance
ᅡᄋ Right of appeal
5. It is open to all. The working groups that are developing the standards are open to the  public and have well-publicized procedures regarding membership, voting, and officers, record-keeping and other areas.
6. The sponsor of the standard forms a balloting group by inviting people from an invitation pool.
7. Open Standards latter consists of IEEE-SA members or people who have paid a ballot fee and are interested in balloting some of the draft standards.
8. Anyone can contribute comments, only members of the balloting group can vote in the ballot
9.                       Many IEEE standards have found international recognitions, e.g. the IEEE 802 series of LAN/ MAN networking standards like 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.11 (Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)).
ANSI (American National Standard Institute):
1. ANSI was founded in 1918.
2. ANSI is a voluntary organization composed over 1300 members that creates standards for computer industries.
3. One of the very popular examples is ANSI C, which has been approved by ANSI committee.
4. ANSI sets standard for wide range of technical areas from Electrical specifications to communications protocol. Example, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) the main set of protocols for sending data over Fiber Optic cables, is an ANSI standard.
ISO (International Standard Organization):
1. ISO was founded in 1946.
2. ISO is an international organization composed of national standard bodies from over 75 countries.
3. ANSI is the member of ISO.
4. ISO has defined many important standards; OSI architecture is most significant for designing networks.
5. OSI – Open System Interconnection is an ISO standard for world wide communications. That defines a networking protocol as seven layers. They are as follows,
ᅡᄋ Application layer
ᅡᄋ Presentation layer
ᅡᄋ Session layer
ᅡᄋ Transport layer
ᅡᄋ Network layer
ᅡᄋ Data link layer
ᅡᄋ Physical layer
6. OSI is also called as OSI reference model or OSI model.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union):
1. ITU is an intergovernmental organization through which public and private organizations develop telecommunications.
2. ITU was founded in 1865 and became a United Nations Agency in 1947.
3. It is responsible for international treaty, regulations and standards governing telecommunications.
4. The standardization functions were formerly group within the ITU called CCITT, but after 1992 reorganization the CCITT no longer exists as a separate entity.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force):
1. IETF is developing and promoting the internet standards 20.
2. IETF is voluntary organization with membership open to any individuals.
3. The actual technical work of IETF is done by working group which are formed based on topics, into several key areas. Each area is overseen by an area director.
4. Area directors together with the IETF Chair, form the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), which is responsible for the overall operation of IETF. 21
5. IETF is overseen by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) which is responsible for Internet Society (ISOC)
OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards):
1. OASIS is a non-profit international consortium.
2. OASIS drives the development, convergence, and adoption of e-business standards.
3. OASIS produces the standards for web services, conformance, business transactions, supply chain and public sectors.
4. Membership of OASIS is open to both individuals and organizations all over the world.
5. OASIS has diverse the membership based on counting users and vendors, governments and universities, trade groups and service providers among its members.
6. The members themselves set the OASIS technical agenda using a process designed to promote consensus and unite disparate efforts. Completed work is ratified by open poll before it is published as an OASIS standard.
FSG (Free Standard Group):
1. FSG is an independent, non-profit organization, accelerating the use of free and open source Software by developing and promoting standards.
2. It supported by both commercial corporations In the IT industry as well as the FOSS development community.
3. All standards produced by FSG are available free and are distributed under open source license.
4. Any one can participate and contribute to the FSG standards development.
5. The FSG is responsible for the important Linux Standard Base (LSB) standardization activity and the Open Internationalization (OpenI18N) initiative.
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