August 10, 2009
Indian Education Standard:
According to Indian education system the government has set some principles from which they felt that the level of education can be developed from Gurukuls to the existing modern systems which improved the nation in turn. The principles which are developed and adopted in schools, colleges, universities are considered to be the standards for education so that the institutions will be recognized by the government.
Present Educational System of India:
Present educational system of India is an implantation of British rulers. In 1984 Woods Dispatch laid the foundation of present system of education in India. The main purpose was to prepare Indian clerks for running local administrations. Today education standards in India can be divided into many stages. Individual person can select his path as he likes. They are as follows,
Hierarchy of Indian Educational System
It consists of children of 3 to 5 years of age studying in nursery, lower kindergarten and upper kindergarten. At this stage student is given knowledge about school life and is taught to read and write some basic words.
It consists of children of 6 to 11 years studying in class from first to fifth.
It consists of children studying in the class from sixth to eighth.
It includes students studying in the class ninth and tenth.
5. Higher secondary:
It includes students studying in eleventh and twelfth classes.
6. Under Graduation:
This course may vary according to the subject selected by the students.
For Graduation degree 3 years ,Engineering 4 years and Medical 4 and half plus one year of compulsory internship.
7. Post Graduation:
After completing graduation students may opt for post graduation to further add to his qualifications.
Types of higher education institutions:
Institute of Technology
School leaving and higher education credentials:
Higher Secondary School Certificate
Secondary School Certificate
Master of Philosophy
Post Master Degree
Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Literature
Doctor of Science
Education Governing Bodies:
1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
This is main governing body of education system in India. It has control over the central education system. It conducts the exams and controls the functioning of the schools.
2. Council of Indian School Certificate Exam System (CISCE)
It is a board for Anglo Indian Studies in India. It conducts two examinations Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and Indian School Certificate.
a. Indian Certificate of secondary education
This is a k10 examination for those Indian students who have just completed class 10th.
b. Indian school certificate
This is a k12 public examination conducted for those studying in class 12th.
3. State Government Boards
Apart form CBSE and CISCE each state in India has its own state board Education.
4. National Open School
It is also called as National Institute of Open Schooling. It was established by the Government of India in 1989. It established for those students who cannot attend formal schools.
5. International Schools
It controls the schools, which are having the curriculum of international standard.
6. Operation Blackboard
It was started in 1987-88. The aim of this program is to improve human and physical resource availability in primary schools of India. According to this program every primary school should have at least two rooms, two teachers and essential teaching aids like blackboard, chalk, duster etc.
7. District Primary Education Program
This program was launched in 1994 with the objective of Globalization of primary education. Its main features are Universal Access, Universal Retention and Universal Achievement. It aims that the primary education should be accessible to each and every child of school going age.
This course at undergraduate level is known as MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery). It is of four and a half years duration plus one year of compulsory internship. Various medical colleges conduct entrance examination for admission to this course. An all India level examination is also conducted by CBSE for admission to colleges all over India based over 15% reserved seats. The important medical colleges of India are:
- All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), New Delhi
- Air Force Medical College (AFMC), Pune
- Christian Medical College (CMC), Ludhiana
- Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore
- Grants Medical College, Mumbai
- Institute of Medical Science (BHU), Varanasi
- Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry
- Maulan Azad Medical College (MAMC), Delhi
- Lady Harding Medical College (LHMC), Delhi (for girls only)
- Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Science , Wardha
The All-India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), established in 1987, is responsible for the coordination of technical and management education institutions. Bodies such as State Councils of Higher Education were established recently.
The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a four-year course. It has wide range of options. Some of them are:
ￃﾘ Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering
ￃﾘ Agriculture engineering
ￃﾘ Computer engineering
ￃﾘ Electronic and electrical engineering
ￃﾘ Industrial engineering
ￃﾘ Marine engineering
ￃﾘ Mining engineering
The best engineering colleges of India are
- Delhi college of Engineering, Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology, KANPUR
- Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
- Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai
- Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
- Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
- Institute of Technology, BHU
- NIT Karnataka, Surathkal
- National Institute of Technology, Warangal
Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
Teachers for lower primary classes (Standards I to V) are trained in Teacher Training Institutes (also called Junior Basic Training Institutes or Primary Teacher Colleges) attached to State departments of education. The course usually for two years and leads to a Diploma or a Teacher Training Certificate. Upper primary school teachers are trained in two years and the course leads to a Diploma. They must have passed the Higher Secondary School-Leaving Certificate.
Training of secondary school teachers
Teachers at lower secondary level (Standards IX and X) are graduates who have completed a one-year Bachelor of Education at a college affiliated to a university. Teachers at the higher secondary level (Standards XI and XII) are postgraduates who have usually completed a Master’s degree followed by a one-year Bachelor in Education.
Training of higher education teachers
Teachers at colleges of education must hold an M.Ed and a PhD. Studies for these are undertaken at a number of universities
Foreign students admission
A minimum of twelve years secondary education with English as one of the subjects. Science stream subjects are required for professional courses.
Some 5 per cent of university places are reserved for foreign students. They must ascertain their eligibility through the AIU or by applying directly to the University of their Choice for courses in Science, the Humanities and Social Sciences. Admission to professional courses is regulated through the Indian Missions. Foreign students nominated through the Missions or the Ministry of External Affairs are not required to sit for the entrance examination conducted for admission to professional courses. They must have studied English at secondary school. Students wishing to study Medicine or Engineering must have studied Physics, Chemistry, and Biology/Maths in the last two years of their secondary education
Students must have a good knowledge of English. Where necessary, special English language courses are organized prior to university entrance from 1 March to 30 June.
The national standard of education (1986) and program of action (1992) lay down the objectives and features of Indian education standard. It includes:
ￂﾷ Development of International cooperation and peaceful coexistence through education.
ￂﾷ Promotion of equality. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal condition of success to children.
ￂﾷ A common educational structure for the whole of India.
ￂﾷ Education for women’s equality. The Indian education should be used as a tool to change the status of women in the society.
ￂﾷ Equalization of SC population with others in the matter of education. This is ensured by giving incentives to parents who send their children to schools, providing scholarship to SC students for higher studies, reservation of seats in institution of higher studies in India, recruitment of SC teachers.
ￂﾷ Opening of primary schools in tribal area for promotion of education in ST people.
ￂﾷ Development of curriculum and study material in the language of tribal people.
ￂﾷ Adult education – Initiation of National Literacy Mission, for teaching illiterate people of age group 15-35. And making them aware of the day-to-day realities of their surroundings.
ￂﾷ Special emphasis on early childhood care and education by opening up of day care centers, promotion of child focused programs.
ￂﾷ Increasing the scope of Operation Blackboard for upliftment of standard of primary education in India.
ￂﾷ Secondary education curriculum should expose the students to differentiated roles of science, the humanities, and social science.
ￂﾷ Redesigning of courses of higher education to meet the increasing demand of professionalism.
ￂﾷ Providing enhanced support to the research work in Universities.
ￂﾷ Setting up of Open Universities and Distance Learning centers to promote the goal of education as a life long process.
ￂﾷ A combined perspective of technical and management education.
ￂﾷ Minimum exposure to computers and training in their use to be the part of professional education.
ￂﾷ The All India Council for Technical Education will be responsible for maintenance of norms and standards, accreditation, funding, and monitoring of technical and management education in India.
ￂﾷ Multiple task performance for teachers such as teaching, research, development of learning resource material, extension and management of the institution.
ￂﾷ Providing teachers a better deal to make education system in India work in proper way, as teachers are the backbone of the system. Providing better facilities to institutions and improved services to students.
ￂﾷ Development of languages in great deal.
ￂﾷ Measures to be taken for easy accessibility of books at minimum costs to all sections of students.
ￂﾷ Strengthening of science education for the development of spirit of inquiry and objectivity in the minds of students.
ￂﾷ The purpose of examination to be to bring about qualitative improvement in education
ￂﾷ Methods of teacher recruitment to be recognized one to ensure merit and objectivity in the system.
ￂﾷ Overhauling of the system of teacher education and establishment of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) to organize courses for elementary school teachers.
ￂﾷ Reviewing of educational developments by the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE)
ￂﾷ Involvement of local communities for school improvement programs.