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IP address and Port

August 7, 2009
Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number,called an IP address.The IP address is reserved for the default network and the address is used for broadcasts.
IP v4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) Address Networks:
Currently three classes of networks are commonly used.These classes may be segregated by the number of octets used to identify a single network.Addressing scheme used in IPv4 is 32-bit.
Class A Networks (the largest) are identified by the first octet,which ranges from 1 to 126.
Class B Networks are identified by the first two octets,the first of which ranges from 128 to 191.
Class C Networks (the smallest) are identified by the first three octets,the first of which ranges from 192 to 223.
IP v6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) Address Networks:
IPv6 is a new standard protocol intended to replace IPv4 for the Internet.Its large address space is not proposed to provide unique addresses.Addressing scheme used in IPv6 is 128-bit.
IPv6 provides better capabilities to support autoconfiguration (such as DHCP),multicasting,traffic engineering and zero configuration networking.IPv6 requires IPsec support.
Port allows a computer to differentiate services such as E-mail data from web data.Port is a special number present in the header of a data packet.Ports are typically used to map data to a particular process running on a computer.
Ports are classified into 3 types:
Well known Ports ¬タモ 0 to 1023
Registered Ports ¬タモ 1024 to 49151
Dynamic/Private Ports ¬タモ 49152 to 65535

For Example, SMTP server has default port number 25 and POP3 server has 110

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