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Encryption and decryption

August 7, 2009

In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography, referred to as ciphertext).

In many contexts, the word encryption also implicitly refers to the reverse process, decryption (e.g. “software for encryption” can typically also perform decryption), to make the encrypted information readable again (i.e. to make it unencrypted).
Types of Cryptographic algorithms:
Symmetric (secret key) encryption:
ᅡᄋ Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), winner of NIST competition, also known as Rijndael
ᅡᄋ Blowfish
ᅡᄋ Data Encryption Standard (DES), sometimes DE  Algorithm, winner of NBS selection competition, replaced by AES for most purposes
ᅡᄋ IDEA
ᅡᄋ RC4 (cipher)
ᅡᄋ Tiny Encryption Algorithm
Asymmetric (public key) encryption:
ᅡᄋ DSA
ᅡᄋ ElGamal
ᅡᄋ RSA
ᅡᄋ NTRUEncrypt
Cryptographic Message digest functions:
ᅡᄋ MD5 – Note that there is now a method of generating collisions for MD5
ᅡᄋ RIPEMD-160
ᅡᄋ SHA-1
ᅡᄋ HMAC: keyed-hash message authentication
ᅡᄋ Tiger (TTH), usually used in Tiger tree hashes
Cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generators:
ᅡᄋ Blum Blum Shub – based on the hardness of factorization
ᅡᄋ Yarrow algorithm
ᅡᄋ Fortuna, allegedly an improvement on Yarrow algorithm
ᅡᄋ Linear feedback shift register
Secret sharing, Secret Splitting, Key Splitting, M of N algorithms:
ᅡᄋ Shamir’s Scheme
ᅡᄋ Blakey’s Scheme
Other
ᅡᄋ Diffie-Hellman key exchange
RSA:
In Cryptography,RSA (Ron Rivest,Adi Shamir,Leonard Adleman) is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. RSA is widely used in electronic commerce protocols, and is believed to be secure given sufficiently long keys and the use of up-to-date implementations. It was the first algorithm known to be suitable for signing as well as encryption, and one of the first great advances in public key cryptography.
Single sign on,LDAP,JAAS
By kavitha ramamoorthy, On 2/23/08 12:27 PM
LDAP:
LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is an Internet protocol that is used to look up information from a server.It is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.
JAAS:
JAAS (Java Authentication and Authorization Service) is a Java security API.JAAS can be used for two purposes:
o For authentication of users, to reliably and securely determine who is currently executing Java code, regardless of whether the code is running as an application, an applet, a bean, or a servlet; and
o For authorization of users to ensure they have the access control rights (permissions) required to do the actions performed.
Single Sign On:
Single sign on is a session/user authentication process that allows a user to provide his or her credentials once in order to access multiple applications. The single sign on authenticates the user to access all the applications he or she has been authorized to access. It eliminates future authentication requests when the user switches applications during that particular session.
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