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Windows API

August 5, 2009
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The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft’s core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. All Windows programs except console programs must interact with the Windows API regardless of the language. Lower level access to a Windows system, mostly required for device drivers, is provided by the Windows Driver Foundation or Native API in current versions of Windows.

A software development kit (SDK) is available for Windows, which provides documentation and tools to enable developers to create software using the Windows API and associated Windows technologies.

The functionality provided by the Windows API can be grouped into seven categories

Base Services

Provide access to the fundamental resources available to a Windows system. Included are things like file systems, devices, processes and threads, access to the Windows registry, and error handling. These functions reside in kernel.exe, krnl286.exe or krnl386.exe files on 16-bit Windows, and kernel32.dll and advapi32.dll on 32-bit Windows.

Graphics Device Interface

Provide the functionality for outputting graphical content to monitors, printers and other output devices. It resides in gdi.exe on 16-bit Windows, and gdi32.dll on 32-bit Windows.

User Interface

Provides the functionality to create and manage screen windows and most basic controls, such as buttons and scrollbars, receive mouse and keyboard input, and other functionality associated with the GUI part of Windows. This functional unit resides in user.exe on 16-bit Windows, and user32.dll on 32-bit Windows. Since Windows XP versions, the basic controls reside in comctl32.dll, together with the common controls (Common Control Library).

Common Dialog Box Library

Provides applications the standard dialog boxes for opening and saving files, choosing color and font, etc. The library resides in a file called commdlg.dll on 16-bit Windows, and comdlg32.dll on 32-bit Windows. It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API.

Common Control Library

Gives applications access to some advanced controls provided by the operating system. These include things like status bars, progress bars, toolbars and tabs. The library resides in a DLL file called commctrl.dll on 16-bit Windows, and comctl32.dll on 32-bit Windows. It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API.

Windows Shell

Component of the Windows API allows applications to access the functionality provided by the operating system shell, as well as change and enhance it. The component resides in shell.dll on 16-bit Windows, and shell32.dll and later in Windows 95 shlwapi.dll on 32-bit Windows. It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API.

Network Services

Give access to the various networking capabilities of the operating system. Its sub-components include NetBIOS, Winsock, NetDDE, RPC and many others.

Web

The Internet Explorer web browser also exposes many APIs that are often used by applications, and as such could be considered a part of the Windows API. Internet Explorer has been included with the operating system since Windows 95, and has provided web related services to applications since Windows 98. Specifically, it used to provide:

  • An embeddable web browser control, contained in shdocvw.dll and mshtml.dll.
  • The URL monitor service, held in urlmon.dll, which provides COM objects to applications for resolving URLs. Applications can also provide their own URL handlers for others to use.
  • A library for assisting with multi-language and international text support (mlang.dll).
  • DirectX Transforms, a set of image filter components.
  • XML support (the MSXML components).
  • Access to the Windows Address Book.

Multimedia

Microsoft has provided the DirectX set of APIs as part of every Windows installation since Windows 95 OSR2. DirectX provides a loosely related set of multimedia and gaming services, including:

  • Direct3D as an alternative to OpenGL for access to 3D acceleration hardware.
  • DirectDraw for hardware accelerated access to the 2D frame buffer. As of DirectX 9, this component has been deprecated in favor of Direct3D, which provides more general high-performance graphics functionality (as 2D rendering is a subset of 3D rendering).
  • DirectSound for low level hardware accelerated sound card access.
  • DirectInput for communication with input devices such as joysticks and game pads.
  • DirectPlay as a multiplayer gaming infrastructure. This component has been deprecated as of DirectX 9 and Microsoft no longer recommends its use for game development.
  • DirectShow which builds and runs generic multimedia pipelines. It is comparable to the GStreamer framework and is often used to render in-game videos and build media players (Windows Media Player is based upon it). DirectShow is no longer recommended for game development.
  • DirectMusic

Program interaction

The Windows API mostly concerns itself with the interaction between the operating system and an application. For communication between the different Windows applications among themselves, Microsoft has developed a series of technologies alongside the main Windows API. This started out with Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), which was superseded by Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) and later by the Component Object Model (COM).

Wrapper libraries

Various wrappers were developed by Microsoft that took over some of the more low level functions of the Windows API, and allowed applications to interact with the API in a more abstract manner. Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC) wrapped Windows API functionality in C++ classes, and thus allows a more object oriented way of interacting with the API. The Active Template Library (ATL) is a template oriented wrapper for COM. The Windows Template Library (WTL) was developed as an extension to ATL, and intended as a lightweight alternative to MFC.

Also notable are some of Borland’s offerings. Object Windows Library (OWL) was released as a competing product to MFC, and offered a similar object-oriented wrapper. Borland later deprecated it in favour of the Visual Component Library (VCL).

Most application frameworks for Windows are (at least partially) wrapping the Windows API. Thus, the .NET Framework and Java, as well as any other programming languages under Windows, are (or contain) Wrapper Libraries.

Versions

Almost every new version of Microsoft Windows has introduced its own additions and changes to the Windows API. The name of the API however was kept consistent between different Windows version, and name changes were kept limited to major architectural and platform changes for Windows. Microsoft eventually changed the name of the then current Win32 API family into Windows API, and made it into a catch-all term for both past and future versions of the API

  • Win16 is the API for the first, 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows. These were initially referred to as simply the Windows API, but were later renamed to Win16 in an effort to distinguish it from the newer, 32-bit version of the Windows API. The functions of Win16 API mainly reside in the core files of the OS: kernel.exe (or krnl286.exe or krnl386.exe), user.exe and gdi.exe. Despite the file extension of exe, these actually are dynamically linked libraries.

  • Win32 is the 32-bit API for modern versions of Windows. The API consists of functions implemented, as with Win16, in system DLLs. The core DLLs of Win32 are kernel32.dll, user32.dll, and gdi32.dll. Win32 was introduced with Windows NT. The version of Win32 that was shipped with Windows 95 was initially referred to as Win32c; with the “c” standing for “compatibility”, but this term was later abandoned by Microsoft in favor of Win32. In Windows NT 4.0 and its successors (including all modern Windows versions), Win32 calls are executed by two modules, csrss.exe (Client/Server Runtime Server Subsystem) in user mode and win32k.sys in kernel mode.
  • Win32s is an extension for the Windows 3.1x family of Microsoft Windows that implemented a subset of the Win32 API for these systems. The “s” stands for “subset”.

Win32 for 64-bit Windows, previously known as Win64, is the version of the API targeted for 64-bit versions of Windows ¬タヤ namely, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition (for x86-64 processors) and Windows XP 64-bit Edition and Windows Server 2003 for Itanium-series. The 64-bit versions are just two more supported platforms within Windows NT architecture so both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of an application can still be compiled from single code base. All memory pointers are 64-bit by default though, so the source code has to be checked for compatibility with 64-bit pointer arithmetic and rewritten as necessary. There are no new functions specific to 64-bit versions of Windows.

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